mardi 4 décembre 2012

nouveautés du Centre de documentation CRISE, CANADA Décembre 2012

Les nouveautés du centre CRISE - Canada -décembre 2012
CRISE



http://crise.ca/


Le CRISE est un centre de recherche interdisciplinaire situé à l'Université du Québec à Montréal. Il regroupe plus de quarante chercheurs, intervenants et étudiants en provenance de quatre universités et de vingt milieux pratiques au Québec.
Le CRISE vise à diminuer le suicide et les comportements suicidaires et à réduire les conséquences négatives du suicide.




Quelques nouveautés du Centre de documentation
Décembre 2012

Suicide et adolescent
Pour vous abonner à cette liste, visitez notre site Internet
http://www.crise.ca/fr/cdd_nouveautes.asp?section=cdd
Bonjour à vous toutes et tous,
Ce mois-ci, notre liste de nouveautés porte sur le suicide chez les adolescents. Plusieurs membres-chercheurs du CRISE ont publié récemment sur le sujet. Réal Labelle, professeur au département de psychologie de l’UQAM et ses collègues, Alain Janelle, Natacha Halfon et Louise Pouliot entre autres, se sont intéressés à différents aspects de cette problématique, des caractéristiques cliniques de la dépression jusqu’à la psychothérapie cognitive. François Chagnon et Catherine Laurier quant à eux se sont penchés sur les adolescents en centres jeunesse. La satisfaction de la jeune clientèle suicidaire et de leurs parents vis-à-vis des traitements reçus a été abordée par Mélissa Henry et Brian Greenfield. Dans cette liste, vous trouverez également quelques autres études canadiennes, notamment réalisées en Nouvelle-Écosse et à Vancouver.
Ceci est le dernier envoi pour l’année 2012. J’espère que vous avez apprécié la nouvelle formule des nouveautés du centre de documentation, les thèmes abordés ainsi que leur contenu.
Je profite de l’occasion pour vous souhaiter de très Joyeuses Fêtes.
À l’an prochain.
Bonne lecture

Charles Cardinal, Bibliothécaire
Si vous avez des suggestions de thématiques à couvrir pour les prochaines éditions des Nouveautés du Centre de documentation ou des commentaires, n’hésitez pas à me les transmettre:
crise.documentation@uqam.ca
Labelle, Réal, Bedwani, C., & Janelle, Alain. (2011). La psychothérapie cognitive de l’adolescent dépressif et suicidaire. Perspectives Psy, 50(3), 220-230.
Résumé: Ce texte constitue une entrée en matière bien documentée de la psychothérapie cognitive de l’adolescent dépressif et suicidaire. Pour ce faire, les auteurs présentent successivement les protocoles d’intervention mis au point par les équipes de Philadelphie (Beck), de Pittsburgh (Brent) et de Montréal (Labelle) pour traiter le trouble dépressif et les comportements suicidaires chez l’adulte en général et chez l’adolescent en particulier. Par cet article, les auteurs visent à présenter et illustrer ce traitement du groupe mené pendant douze semaines dans le contexte d’une prise charge d’une adolescente montréalaise de 15 ans consultant pour une dépression majeure avec idées suicidaires Au terme d’un travail intense sur les pensées et leurs liens avec son comportement, Julie transformera son expérience négative de vie en récit porteur d’espoir.

http://www.crise.ca/fr/mb_pub_details.asp?section=membres&no_pub=619&usager=labeller&conf_pub=publication
Halfon, Natacha, Labelle, Réal, Cohen, D., Guile, J. M., & Breton, J. J. (2012). Juvenile bipolar disorder and suicidality: a review of the last 10 years of literature. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry [epub].
Résumé: Although children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) are at elevated risk for suicide, little research to date has been conducted on suicidality in this population. The purpose of this descriptive review of the past 10 years of scientific literature on suicidality in youths with BD was to identify the risk and protective factors associated with this phenomenon, and to discuss the implications for research and clinical practice. Searches on Medline and PsycINFO databases for the period from early 2002 to mid-2012 yielded 16 relevant articles, which were subsequently explored using an analysis grid. Note that the authors employed a consensus analysis approach at all stages of the review. Four primary categories of risk factors for suicidality in youths with BD were identified: demographic (age and gender), clinical (depression, mixed state or mixed features specifier, mania, anxiety disorders, psychotic symptoms, and substance abuse), psychological (cyclothymic temperament, hopelessness, poor anger management, low self-esteem, external locus of control, impulsivity and aggressiveness, previous suicide attempts, and history of suicide ideation, non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors and past psychiatric hospitalization), and family/social (family history of attempted suicide, family history of depression, low quality of life, poor family functioning, stressful life events, physical/sexual abuse, and social withdrawal). Youths with BD who experienced more complex symptomatic profiles were at greater risk of suicidality. Few protective factors associated with suicidality have been studied among youths with BD. One protective factor was found in this descriptive literature review: the positive effects of dialectical behavior therapy. This article allows a better appreciation of the risk and protective factors associated with suicidality among youth with BD. Greater awareness of risk factors is the first step in suicide prevention.

http://www.crise.ca/fr/mb_pub_details.asp?section=membres&no_pub=647&usager=labeller&conf_pub=publication
Labelle, Réal, Breton, J. J., Pouliot, Louise, Dufresne, M. J., & Berthiaume, C. (2012). Cognitive correlates of serious suicidal ideation in a community sample of adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders [epub]
Résumé: BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that a dysfunctional attributional style, problem-solving deficits and hopelessness place youths at risk of developing suicidal thoughts and engaging in suicidal behaviour. However, in the realm of suicidality in adolescent, no study has examined the linkages between these three cognitive variables and suicidal ideation in non-clinical samples while taking into account the moderating role of gender on the relationships and controlling for depression. METHODS: In this community study of 712 adolescents 14-18 years of age, through a multivariate approach, the interaction between the cognitive variables, depression and gender was examined with depression controlled in the analyses. RESULTS: Problem-solving deficits and hopelessness proved predictive of such ideation whether or not depressive symptoms were controlled in the analyses. Negative problem orientation/avoidant style was more predictive of ideation in boys than in girls. On the other hand, hopelessness was more predictive for girls than boys. LIMITATIONS: Results were based on a convenience community sample of adolescents and a cross-sectional survey. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that a unique explanatory model of the suicide process in adolescence that fails to take account of gender would be ill informed. Suicide prevention strategies should be differentiated according to gender with a stronger emphasis in hopelessness in female adolescents, and problem-solving deficits in male adolescents.

http://www.crise.ca/fr/mb_pub_details.asp?section=membres&no_pub=646&usager=labeller&conf_pub=publication
Breton, J.-J., Labelle, Réal, Huynh, C., Berthiaume, C., St-Georges, M., & Guilé, J.-M. (2012). Clinical characteristics of depressed youths in child psychiatry. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 21(1), 23-29.
Résumé: OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of depressed children and adolescents according to age groups and sex.  METHODS: A retrospective chart review study was conducted on 75 youths aged 6-17 years referred for depressive disorders to child psychiatry in 2002-2003. Descriptive statistics and tests of association were completed to compare boys aged 6-11 years, boys aged 12-17 years and girls aged 12-17 years.  RESULTS: One out of two youths has repeated a school year. About 60% of depressed boys aged 6-11 years are referred to child psychiatry services for behavioral difficulties and 71% of boys in this age group have a depressive disorder comorbid with disruptive behavior disorder. Adolescent boys and girls are more likely to present internalized symptoms than children. However, suicidal ideation is as widespread in children (71%) as in adolescent population, both boys (72%) and girls (85%). Parent-child relational problems are observed in the majority of the sample with a higher prevalence among adolescent girls. CONCLUSION: It is as important to assess depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among young boys with behavioral difficulties as in adolescent boys and girls. Family functioning is important to consider in evaluating and treating youth.

http://www.crise.ca/fr/mb_pub_details.asp?section=membres&no_pub=620&usager=labeller&conf_pub=publication
Lapalme-Remis, S., Tremblay-Jolicoeur, C., Amsel, R., Henry, Melissa, & Greenfield, Brian. (2011). Effect of research questionnaires on satisfaction with treatment care in suicidal adolescents and their parents. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 20(2), 107-111.
Résumé: OBJECTIVE: Few psychosocial treatment methods have been empirically validated as effective for the prevention of suicide in suicidal adolescents, in part due to concerns that research could compromise quality of care. The study assessed the impact of research batteries on satisfaction with psychiatric care in suicidal adolescents and their parents. METHOD: Suicidal adolescents presenting to the emergency department of a major urban pediatric hospital were divided into two groups, one receiving treatment as usual and the other exposed to psychometric testing of the type typically used in research protocols both before and after their treatment. Following treatment, the patients of both groups and their parents were given questionnaires to assess satisfaction with the services they had received. Differences between the two groups were analyzed. RESULTS: No significant intergroup differences were found (p>0.05) in either patients or their parents regarding treatment received from the emergency-room team, regardless of whether they had been subjected to the psychometric testing. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence in the study to support concerns that extensive psychometric testing of the type frequently encountered in research studies undermines patient satisfaction with the care they receive.

http://www.crise.ca/fr/mb_pub_details.asp?section=membres&no_pub=613&usager=greenfield_b&conf_pub=publication
Laurier, Catherine, & Chagnon, François. (2011). Étude du risque suicidaire chez des jeunes contrevenants masculins: Caractéristiques différentielles des adolescents les plus à risque. Revue de Psychoéducation, 40(2), 191-216.
Résumé: Les jeunes contrevenants représentent une population particulièrement à risque de comportements suicidaires (tentatives et suicides complétés). La littérature à ce sujet révèle que plusieurs facteurs, telles la violence et l’instabilité familiale, sont associés tout autant au risque suicidaire qu’au risque de délinquance. En outre, certaines caractéristiques associées au mode de vie délinquant, tel le port d’armes et la consommation de substances, contribuent à amplifier le risque de passage à l’acte suicidaire. À l’inverse, la délinquance entraîne des conséquences pouvant exacerber le risque suicidaire : ruptures relationnelles ordonnées par le tribunal, incertitudes liées aux problèmes légaux et l’hébergement en centres pour jeunes contrevenants en constituent des exemples. Dans ce contexte, les résultats d’une étude portant sur le risque suicidaire chez des jeunes contrevenants pris en charge par le Centre jeunesse de Montréal – Institut universitaire sont présentés dans cet article. Cette étude de nature quantitative a inclus 49 jeunes contrevenants sous la Loi sur le système de justice pénale pour adolescents. Les analyses révèlent que 37,6% des jeunes rencontrés présentent un risque suicidaire. Une analyse en grappes (cluster analysis) a ensuite permis la création de deux groupes de jeunes contrevenants : le premier comprend des adolescents (n=20) présentant de mulitples difficultés psychologiques (groupe multirisque) et le second (n=28) regroupe des adolescents qui en présentent moins (groupe faible risque). Ces groupes sont décrits en fonction de leurs caractéristiques associées, permettant l’ébauche d’une classification distinguant les jeunes contrevenants les plus à risque et les moins à risque de présenter des difficultés psychologiques, dont un risque suicidaire. Par l’étude des différences entre ces deux groupes, il est possible de dégager les facteurs les plus susceptibles d’influencer le risque suicidaire. Finalement, la prévalence du trouble de stress post-traumatique (TSPT) est observée plus spécifiquement selon les deux groupes précédemment créés. Les jeunes du groupe multirisque présentent significativement plus fréquemment un TSPT que les jeunes du groupe faible risque malgré une prévalence comparable des traumatismes vécus par les individus des deux groupes. En conclusion, cette étude a permis de dresser un portrait des adolescents les plus à risque de suicide parmi un groupe de jeunes contrevenants. Par la mise en lumière d’une problématique associée caractérisée par des difficultés psychologiques multiples et multifactorielles, cette étude souligne l’importance d’une prise en charge et d’un traitement global des jeunes contrevenants, incluant les aspects psychologiques et les expériences passées.

http://www.crise.ca/fr/mb_pub_details.asp?section=membres&no_pub=650&usager=chagnonf&conf_pub=publication
Dagenais, D. (2011). Le suicide des jeunes : une pathologie du devenir adulte contemporain. Recherches sociographiques, 52(1), 71-104.
Résumé: Cet article présente l’analyse d’une trentaine de cas de suicide de jeunes à partir d’entrevues avec les proches. L’enquête révèle un contraste marqué entre deux logiques passionnelles repérables dans la vie de ces jeunes et exprimées à travers leur suicide : la peur (adolescente) et le refus (jeune) du devenir adulte, passions qui ont crû dans des contextes familiaux eux aussi nettement contrastés. Appréhendant à partir de là le suicide des jeunes comme pathologie sociale, l’auteur ouvre la porte à l’interprétation de ces types comme types anomiques et fatalistes purs, anthropologiques. L’approche proposée se veut une réfutation du paradigme suicidologique.

http://dx.doi.org/10.7202/045834ar
Ledoux, C., Brunelle, N., & Bertrand, K. (2011). Le vécu d'adolescents toxicomanes en traitement présentant des comportements suicidaires. Drogues, santé et société, 10(2), 1-38.
Résumé: Les comportements suicidaires ne sont que peu considérés dans le traitement de la toxicomanie chez les adolescents. Les connaissances des particularités liées à leur processus de rétablissement et à leur perception des services reçus sont très limitées, mais elles sont nécessaires afin de leur offrir des services mieux adaptés à leur réalité. Cette étude vise à explorer le vécu et les perceptions quant au processus de rétablissement de jeunes qui présentent des comportements suicidaires lors de leur admission en traitement de la toxicomanie. En vue de mieux comprendre les particularités de leur expérience, un sous-objectif de l'étude est de la mettre en contraste avec celle des adolescents ne rapportant pas de tels comportements. Dans le cadre d'entretiens semi-structurés, 27 jeunes ont été rencontrés six mois après leur admission dans un centre de traitement de la toxicomanie. De ce nombre, huit jeunes ont évoqué avoir eu des comportements suicidaires au cours de leur rétablissement ou en présentaient à leur admission en traitement. Des analyses thématiques ont été réalisées. Les jeunes présentant des comportements suicidaires rapportent davantage l'influence d'une personne modèle sur leur choix de commencer un traitement ou de réduire leur consommation. Ils nomment également avoir vécu des difficultés entravant l'établissement de l'alliance thérapeutique ainsi que des difficultés à rompre les liens avec les pairs consommateurs. Les comportements suicidaires qu'ils décrivent semblent liés à des événements difficiles ou à une détresse psychologique persistante. Ces résultats mettent en évidence des pistes d'intervention afin d'orienter le traitement de la toxicomanie en fonction des besoins des adolescents qui présentent à la fois un problème de toxicomanie et des comportements suicidaires.

http://www.drogues-sante-societe.ca/antdl_txt.php?txtNo=2
Gérard, N., Delvenne, V., & Nicolis, H. (2012). La contagion du suicide chez les adolescents : aspects culturels, éthiques et psychosociaux. Revue médicale de Bruxelles, 33(3), 164-170.
Résumé: Le suicide est la deuxième cause de mortalité chez les adolescents. Les facteurs de risque sont nombreux et variés. La contagion du suicide a été évoquée comme cause potentielle du suicide chez les jeunes. Pour étayer cet argument, nous avons fait une revue de la littérature sur l’éventuelle contagiosité du suicide chez les adolescents. Plusieurs types de situations peuvent soutenir cette hypothèse : lorsqu’un jeune est confronté au suicide d’un parent ou d’un ami proche, quand il séjourne dans une collectivité, au travers les médias ou via Internet. La manière dont un suicide est rapportée dans la presse montre une corrélation avec l’augmentation du taux d’incidence de suicides chez les adolescents. En résumé, il y a des preuves de plus en plus évidentes que la contagion peut favoriser certains suicides chez les jeunes. Pour cette raison, il semble important que des mesures préventives soient mises en place. Cependant, même si ce mécanisme a joué un rôle dans le déclenchement de l’acte, il est important de souligner qu’un suicide est toujours la conséquence de plusieurs éléments dont l’histoire personnelle du sujet.

http://www.amub.be/rmb/article.php?id=815
White, J. (2012). Youth suicide as a “wild” problem: implications for prevention practice. Suicidology Online, 3, 42-50.
Résumé: The intent of this article is to explore the idea that youth suicide –which is conceptualized here as an unstable, historically contingent, and unruly problem – cannot be solved, nor contained, through an exclusive reliance on pre-determined, universal or standardized interventions. Informed by a constructionist perspective, social problems like youth suicide are understood as constituted through language and other relational practices. Based on a close reading of the mainstream school-based suicide prevention literature it is argued that youth suicide has largely been constructed as a “tame problem,” and this in turn places certain limits on what might be thought, said or done in response. By re-imagining youth suicide as a “wild” and unstable problem that is deeply embedded in local, historical, and relational contexts, more expansive possibilities for thinking, learning and responding might become available. Implications for school-based suicide prevention are discussed.

http://www.suicidology-online.com/pdf/SOL-2012-3-42-50.pdf
Olson, R. (2012). Teen suicide: Is there an epidemic? iE: infoExchange(iE6), 4 p.
Résumé: Young people who die by suicide have been more scrutinized, studied and talked about than any other population group. Perhaps this is as it should be; not only is one suicide too many, but when a teenager takes his or her life it is a tragedy beyond words. It is an act of ultimate negation. It is a future denied, and a life taken before it has really lived.

http://suicideinfo.ca/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=XpFzsEQ-ERU%3d&tabid=587
Langille, D. B., Asbridge, M., Kisely, S., & Rasic, D. (2012). Suicidal behaviours in adolescents in Nova Scotia, Canada: protective associations with measures of social capital. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(10), 1549-1555.
Résumé: PURPOSE: Few studies of adolescent suicidality have examined its associations with social capital. We explored associations of measures of individual level social capital with self-reported suicide ideation and suicide attempt in adolescents in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada, controlling for other factors known to be associated with adolescent suicidality. METHODS: We surveyed 1,597 grade 10-12 students at three high schools in 2006 using self-completion questionnaires. Both sexes were combined for analysis. Outcome measures were suicidal ideation and attempt in the previous year. Measures of social capital included perceptions of trustworthiness and helpfulness of others at school, frequency of religious attendance and participation in extracurricular activities. Logistic regressions were carried out to determine associations of social capital with suicidality while controlling for other factors. RESULTS: Perceived trustworthiness and helpfulness were protective for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in the previous year. In adjusted analyses, there were interactions of gender and social capital-females reporting more social capital were more protected from suicide attempt relative to males with similar levels of social capital. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial evidence of protective associations of individual level social capital with adolescent suicidality. Our findings suggest that among adolescents low social capital as measured by perceptions of trust and helpfulness of others at school may be a warning sign for suicidality, particularly for females. It may be helpful to inquire of young people how they perceive the trustworthiness and helpfulness of their school environment as a measure of how supportive that environment might be to them when they are facing challenges to their mental health.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-011-0461-x
Skinner, R., & McFaull, S. (2012). Suicide among children and adolescents in Canada: trends and sex differences, 1980-2008. CMAJ, 184(9), 1029-1034.
Résumé: BACKGROUND:Suicide is the second leading cause of death for young Canadians (10-19 years of age) - a disturbing trend that has shown little improvement in recent years. Our objective was to examine suicide trends among Canadian children and adolescents. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective analysis of standardized suicide rates using Statistics Canada mortality data for the period spanning from 1980 to 2008. We analyzed the data by sex and by suicide method over time for two age groups: 10-14 year olds (children) and 15-19 year olds (adolescents). We quantified annual trends by calculating the average annual percent change (AAPC). RESULTS:We found an average annual decrease of 1.0% in the suicide rate for children and adolescents, but stratification by age and sex showed significant variation. We saw an increase in suicide by suffocation among female children and adolescents. In addition, we noted a decrease in suicides involving poisoning and firearms during the study period. INTERPRETATION:Our results show that suicide rates in Canada are increasing among female children and adolescents and decreasing among male children and adolescents. Limiting access to lethal means has some potential to mitigate risk. However, suffocation, which has become the predominant method for committing suicide for these age groups, is not amenable to this type of primary prevention.

http://www.cmaj.ca/content/184/9/1029.abstract
Hadland, S. E., Marshall, B. D., Kerr, T., Qi, J., Montaner, J. S., & Wood, E. (2012). Suicide and history of childhood trauma among street youth. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136(3), 377-380.
Résumé: BACKGROUND: Street youth represent a marginalized population marked by early mortality and elevated risk for suicide. It is not known to what extent childhood abuse and neglect predispose to suicide in this difficult-to-study population. This study is among the first to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and subsequent attempted suicide during adolescence and young adulthood among street youth. METHODS: From October 2005 to November 2007, data were collected for the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of 495 street-recruited youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada. Self-reported attempted suicide in the preceding six months was examined in relation to childhood abuse and neglect, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 46 (9.3%) youth reported a suicide attempt during the preceding six months. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were highly prevalent, with 201 (40.6%) and 131 (26.5%) of youth reporting history of each, respectively. Increasing CTQ score was related to risk for suicide attempt despite adjustment for confounders. LIMITATIONS: Use of snowball sampling may not have produced a truly random sample, and reliance on self-report may have resulted in underreporting of risk behaviors among participants. Moreover, use of cross-sectional data limits the degree to which temporality can be concluded from the results of this study alone. CONCLUSIONS: There exists a strong and graded association between childhood trauma and subsequent attempted suicide among street youth, an otherwise 'hidden' population. There is a need for effective interventions that not only prevent maltreatment of children but also aid youth at increased risk for suicide given prior history of trauma.[rm]

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.11.019
Brent, D. A., Poling, K. D., & Goldstein, T. R. (2011). Treating Depressed and Suicidal Adolescents: A Clinician's Guide. New York, US: Guilford Press.
Résumé: Grounded in decades of research and the clinical care of thousands of depressed and suicidal teens, this highly accessible book will enhance the skills of any therapist who works with this challenging population. The authors describe the nuts and bolts of assessing clients and crafting individualized treatment plans that combine cognitive and behavioral techniques, emotion regulation interventions, family involvement, and antidepressant medication. Illustrated with many clinical examples, each chapter includes a concise overview and key points.
[Tiré du site web de l'éditeur]
Hawton, K., Saunders, K. E., & O'Connor, R. C. (2012). Self-harm and suicide in adolescents. Lancet, 379(9834), 2373-2382.
Résumé: Self-harm and suicide are major public health problems in adolescents, with rates of self-harm being high in the teenage years and suicide being the second most common cause of death in young people worldwide. Important contributors to self-harm and suicide include genetic vulnerability and psychiatric, psychological, familial, social, and cultural factors. The effects of media and contagion are also important, with the internet having an important contemporary role. Prevention of self-harm and suicide needs both universal measures aimed at young people in general and targeted initiatives focused on high-risk groups. There is little evidence of effectiveness of either psychosocial or pharmacological treatment, with particular controversy surrounding the usefulness of antidepressants. Restriction of access to means for suicide is important. Major challenges include the development of greater understanding of the factors that contribute to self-harm and suicide in young people, especially mechanisms underlying contagion and the effect of new media. The identification of successful prevention initiatives aimed at young people and those at especially high risk, and the establishment of effective treatments for those who self-harm, are paramount needs.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(12)60322-5
Michelmore, L., & Hindley, P. (2012). Help-seeking for suicidal thoughts and self-harm in young people: a systematic review. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 42(5), 507-524.
Résumé: There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that only a minority of young people experiencing suicidal thoughts or self-harm present to any health services. This is of concern given that young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm often require treatment for mental illness as well as to reduce their risk of completed suicide. We reviewed previously published international community epidemiological studies examining help-seeking for suicidal thoughts or self-harm in young people up to the age of 26. The studies confirm that the majority of these young people do not seek professional help, and this includes seeking medical help after an overdose. The majority of young people studied do, however, seek help from social networks that most commonly are peers. Factors influencing and barriers to help-seeking are discussed and highlight a need for further research into the role that peers and family play in the help-seeking process for young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1943-278X.2012.00108.x
Amitai, M., & Apter, A. (2012). Social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in early life: a review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(3), 985-994.
Résumé: Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment.

http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9030985
Hepp, U., Stulz, N., Unger-Koppel, J., & Ajdacic-Gross, V. (2012). Methods of suicide used by children and adolescents. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 21(2), 67-73.
Résumé: Although relatively rare, suicide is a leading cause of death in children and adolescents in the Western world. This study examined whether children and adolescents are drawn to other methods of suicide than adults. Swiss suicides from 1998 to 2007 were examined. The main methods of suicide were analysed with respect to age and gender. Of the 12,226 suicides which took place in this 10-year period, 333 were committed by children and adolescents (226 males, 107 females). The most prevalent methods of suicide in children and adolescents 0-19 years were hanging, jumping from heights and railway-suicides (both genders), intoxication (females) and firearms (males). Compared to adults, railway-suicides were over-represented in young males and females. Jumping from heights was over-represented in young males. Thus, availability has an important effect on methods of suicide chosen by children and adolescents. Restricting access to most favoured methods of suicide might be an important strategy in suicide prevention.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-011-0232-y
Documentaliste/Librarian: Charles Cardinal | Téléhone: 514-987-3000 #1685 | Courriel/E-mail: crise.documentation@uqam.ca
Les opinions exprimées dans ces documents sont celles des auteurs et elles ne représentent pas nécessairement celles des membres du CRISE. Ces titres sont fournis à titre informatif seulement. Le CRISE ne se tient aucunement responsable de l'utilisation de l'information contenue à l'intérieur de ces documents.| Opinions expressed in these documents are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect opinions of CRISE members. These titles are provided for information only and CRISE is not responsible for the use of information therewithin.

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